Subject Links

Links to external pages that provide useful information.

These links point to specific pages within external websites. Please note that if the website owner moves the page then you may have to visit the site and search for the information. Feel free to contact us and we will endeavour to repair any broken links.

Also, please do not infer that we 100% agree with everything on the linked pages.   Even so, it is always good to look at all sides of an issue to form a better educated opinion.

Insulin Resistance

What, exactly, is Insulin Resistance? – T2D 23Dr Jason Fung explains Insulin Resistance.
The cholesterol and calorie hypotheses are both dead — it is time to focus on the real culprit: insulin resistanceEmerging evidence shows that insulin resistance is the most important predictor of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.
Insulin Resistance, Hyperglycemia, and AtherosclerosisProgress in preventing atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) has been stalled by the epidemic of type 2 diabetes.
Mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance: an updateThis review will take a journey through the past and summarise the debate about the occurrence of mitochondrial dysfunction and its possible role in causing decreased insulin action in obesity and type 2 diabetes..
Hyperinsulinemia: A unifying theory of chronic disease?A review of the link between high insulin levels and many diseases.
Acute effects of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia on vascular inflammatory biomarkers and endothelial function in overweight and obese humansThis study “…investigated the separate and combined effects of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on markers of endothelial function, proinflammatory and proatherothrombotic responses in overweight/obese nondiabetic humans. “

Reversing Diabetes

Therapeutic fasting as a potential effective treatment for type 2 diabetes: A 4-month case studyThis case follows a male T2D patient treated at the Intensive Dietary Management Clinic in Scarborough, Ontario, over a 4-month period.
A low-carbohydrate survey: Evidence for sustainable metabolic syndrome reversalThis study was designed to examine how voluntary adherents to a low-carbohydrate diet rate its effectiveness and sustainability using an online survey.


Fasting: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical ApplicationsNational Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), 2014, Longo & Mattson.
Fasting has been practiced for millennia, but only recently studies have shed light on its role in adaptive cellular responses that reduce oxidative damage and inflammation, optimize energy metabolism and bolster cellular protection.
Physiological Adaptation to Prolonged StarvationDeranged Physiology » Required Reading » Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nutrition » Chapter 3.1.8
Fasting triggers stem cell regeneration of damaged, old immune systemProtection from chemotherapy immunosuppression indicates effect could be conserved in humans
Food Intake and Starvation Induce Metabolic ChangesBiochemistry, 5th edition, Jeremy M Berg, John L Tymoczko, and Lubert Stryer.

Fat / Saturated Fat / PUF

Saturated Fat and Heart Disease – Hormonal ObesitySaturated fat has been linked to heart disease since the 1960s. With the realization that trans fats and saturated fats were not similar in any way, researchers strove to separate the effects.
Saturated fat does not clog the arteries: coronary heart disease is a chronic inflammatory conditionCoronary artery disease pathogenesis and treatment urgently requires a paradigm shift. Despite popular belief among doctors and the public, the conceptual model of dietary saturated fat clogging a pipe is just plain wrong.
Omega-6 and omega-3 oxylipins are implicated in soybean oil-induced obesity in miceAn important study in mice showing a clear link between w-6 linoleic acid and obesity and liver damage (amongst other things).
Biomarkers of Fat and Fatty Acid IntakeExamines the biomarkers of fat metabolism.
The cell biology of fat expansionJournal of Cell Biology – Discusses in detail how fat cells appear to work.
Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty AcidsDietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show striking increases in the (n-6) to (n-3) ratio (~15 : 1), which are associated with greater metabolism of the n-6 PUFA compared with n-3 PUFA. Coinciding with this increase in the ratio of (n-6) : (n-3) PUFA are increases in chronic inflammatory diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disease, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). By increasing the ratio of (n-3) : (n-6) PUFA in the Western diet, reductions may be achieved in the incidence of these chronic inflammatory diseases.
What’s Worse—Carbs or Seed Oils? Understanding a High-PUFA Diet.A long and complex discussion on the role of PUFA in modern diseases but well worth struggling through.

Low Carb Eating

Everyone wants to make money out of you.  Below are a few links that are less commercial than some others we would have like to add.  We are always concerned that a focus on making money will influence the truth so we have left the worst ones off the list.

Many sites will support eating a lot of fruit, which is clearly something that we don’t agree with based on their high sugar and starch content.

Diet DoctorA low-carb diet for beginners
Edify: What Can I Eat?What Can I Eat?
Introduction to the Banting Diet“The Banting Diet is The Real Meal Revolution’s four-phased eating program designed to get you thin and healthy.”

Keto Eating

A keto diet for beginners“Here you’ll learn how to eat a keto diet based on real foods. “

Vitamins / Minerals / Supplements

A ChIP-seq defined genome-wide map of vitamin D receptor binding: Associations with disease and evolution“… we identified 2776 genomic positions occupied by the VDR and 229 genes with significant changes in expression in response to vitamin D.”
Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D“This overview provides a brief description of the physiologic, endocrinologic, and molecular biologic characteristics of vitamin D.”
Dietary Villains – Part 2: Salt ScareProbably your best resource for summarizing the science on salt consumption.
“Is salt bad for our health? Should we follow a low salt diet? An in-depth analysis of available data and the surprising conclusion.”
Fact Sheet for Health Professionals
National Institutes of Health (NIH) ODS paper discussion magnesium in human health.
BoronEssentiality of Boron for Healthy Bones and Joints, Rex E.Newnham
IodineThe Great Iodine Debate –
Ascorbic Acid and the Immune System (pdf)A discussion on how Vitamin C affects the immune system, but also highlights the antagonistic nature of Vitamin-C and Glucose.


The Emerging Hallmarks of Cancer Metabolism“… In this Review, we have organized known cancer-associated metabolic changes into six hallmarks: …”
Cancer as a mitochondrial metabolic disease“…emerging evidence suggests that cancer is a mitochondrial metabolic disease, according to the original theory of Otto Warburg. The findings are reviewed from nuclear cytoplasm transfer experiments that relate to the origin of cancer.”

Dementia / Alzheimer’s

The Role of Tau in Brain Function and DementiaThe Role of Tau in Brain Function and Dementia
Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease May Be Easier Than You Think“… researchers now understand that insulin resistance is the driving force behind most cases of garden-variety Alzheimer’s Disease”
Alzheimer’s Disease Is Type 3 Diabetes–Evidence ReviewedAlzheimer’s Disease Is Type 3 Diabetes–Evidence Reviewed

Aging / mTOR etc

Fasting and Autophagy – mTOR/ Autophagy 1Jason Fung’s blog has a great number of articles on fasting, autophagy, insulin resistance, diabetes and cancer.  His blog is recommended reading.
Twenty-five years of mTOR: Uncovering the link from nutrients to growthPNAS 2017 November, David M. Sabatini, 114 (45) 11818-11825. Twenty-five years of mTOR: Uncovering the link from nutrients to growth.
Familial longevity is marked by enhanced insulin sensitivityThis study shows a significant link between insulin sensitivity and lifespan.
“Insulin resistance is a risk factor for various age-related diseases. In the Leiden Longevity study, we recruited longlived
siblings and their offspring.”
Advanced glycation end products, Key players in skin aging?
“… this review the existing literature on AGEs and skin aging will be reviewed.”

Diet General

Evidence for Meat-Eating by Early Humans“The first major evolutionary change in the human diet was the incorporation of meat and marrow from large animals, which occurred by at least 2.6 million years ago.”
Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer dietsExamines diets of hunter gatherers. “Conclusion … Whenever and wherever it was ecologically possible, hunter-gatherers would have consumed high amounts (45–65% of total energy) of animal food… “
Mitochondria as a Target of Environmental Toxicants2013 Review into Mitochondria as a Target of Environmental Toxicants
Dietary advanced glycation end-product restriction for the attenuation of insulin resistance, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction: a systematic review“The benefits of advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-restricted diets in humans are unclear. This review aimed to determine the effect of dietary AGE restriction on the inflammatory profiles of healthy adults and adults with diabetes or renal failure. “


Daily physical activity predicts degree of insulin resistance …“This study examined the independent association of objectively measured physical activity on insulin resistance while controlling for confounding variables including: cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity, sex, age, and smoking status.”
The Importance of Exercise as a Therapeutic Agent“… While there is unanimous agreement that regular physical activity is essential for optimal function of the human body, it is evident that extrinsic factors, such as diet, smoking, exercise habits, are reflected in the morbidity and mortality statistics of the population. …”
Other Resources